STRUGGLE IN THE PERSIAN GULF 271 was Alfonso D'Albuquerque,1 who in A.D. 1507 started from Socotra with a squadron of seven ships to attack Hormuz. He coasted along Arabia, sacking the ports, including Maskat. To modern ideas his cruelty was repulsive, prisoners of both sexes being mutilated with the object of inspiring fear. Everywhere he was success- ful, and passing Musandam, which is termed Cape Macinde in the Commentaries^ he approached Hormuz with flags flying and artillery ready. The point was doubled, and to the dismay of his captains a large number of ships were sighted in the harbour, supported by a powerful force drawn up on shore. D'Albuquerque boldly attacked the ships, and most of them, deserted by their cowardly crews, fell into his hands. After this easy success he proceeded to land his small force, whereupon the boy king submitted and agreed to pay tribute at the rate of £5000 per annum. The Persian Demand for Tribute.—A few days after the ratification of the treaty, the king sent to inform D'Albu- querque that a representative of Shah Ismail had reached the shore opposite the island, and had sent to demand the tribute due to Persia. D'Albuquerque replied that " he might tell the king that this kingdom of Ormuz belonged to the King of Portugal, gained by his fleet and his men, and that he might know of a certainty that if any tribute should be paid to any other king, except the king D. Manoel, his lord, he would take the government of the kingdom and give it to some one who would not be afraid of the Xeque IsmaeL He then sent to the ships for cannon-balls, guns, matchlocks, and grenades, and told him to say to the king that he might send all these to the captain of the Xeque Ismael, for that was the sort of money wherewith the King of Portugal had ordered his captain to pay the tribute of that kingdom that was under his mastery and command."2 Thus with Shah Ismail began the connexion between Portugal and Persia, which terminated in disaster for the invaders a little more than a century later. 1 Commentaries of Alfonso Dalboqucrque, ed, by Birch for the Hakluyt Society. 2 Commentaries, vol. i. p. 145.